424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-223334

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 27, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(to Prospectus dated March 7, 2018)

            Shares

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase                      Shares of

Common Stock

 

LOGO

Common Stock

We are offering                  shares of our common stock.

We are also offering to a certain existing investor the opportunity to purchase, in lieu of the shares of our common stock, warrants, which we refer to as pre-funded warrants, to purchase shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant will equal the price per share that shares of our common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant will equal $0.001 per share. This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of such pre-funded warrants. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “CNCE.” We do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on The Nasdaq Global Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system. On January 23, 2020, the last sale price of our common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market was $12.77 per share.

We are a smaller reporting company as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement and future filings.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 of this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed on the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     PER SHARE      PER
PRE-FUNDED
WARRANT
     TOTAL  

Public Offering Price

   $        $                        $    

Underwriting Discount (1)

   $        $        $    

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $                        $        $                        

 

 

(1)   See “Underwriting” for additional information regarding underwriter compensation.

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to an additional                  shares of our common stock from us at the price to the public less the underwriting discount.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants to the purchasers on                 , 2020.

Sole Book-Running Manager

Jefferies

Prospectus Supplement dated                 , 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

CAUTIONARY NOTE

     S-iv  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-8  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-9  

DILUTION

     S-10  

DESCRIPTION OF PRE-FUNDED WARRANTS

     S-12  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     S-13  

UNDERWRITING

     S-17  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-24  

EXPERTS

     S-25  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-26  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-27  

PROSPECTUS

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

CONCERT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     6  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

SECURITIES THAT MAY BE OFFERED

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     32  

 

 

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of the common stock we are offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference herein or therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein or in the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell, or soliciting an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, and in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us that we may authorize for use in connection with this filing is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety, before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement

 

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and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless otherwise stated, all references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Concert,” “the Company” and similar designations refer, collectively, to Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

ongoing and planned clinical trials for our product candidates, whether conducted by us or by our collaborators, including the timing of initiation of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

   

our plans to identify, develop and commercialize novel small molecule drugs based on our knowledge of deuterium chemistry;

 

   

our plans to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of product candidates;

 

   

our expected benefits from our current and any future collaboration, development or license arrangements;

 

   

our ability to receive research and development funding and achieve anticipated milestones under our collaborations;

 

   

our expectations regarding any future milestone payments we may receive as part of our asset purchase agreement with Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. with respect to VX-561 and payments from our other collaboration and license arrangements;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our products;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

the outcome of our appeal of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board’s written decision in connection with the inter partes review proceeding regarding our composition of matter patent covering CTP-543;

 

   

our expectations regarding the Notice of Allowance from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office for our patent application for CTP-543 that is expected to cover pharmaceutical compositions of CTP-543 and methods of treating alopecia areata with CTP-543;

 

   

our freedom to operate with respect to Incyte Corporation’s patent claiming deuterated ruxolitinib compounds;

 

   

our expectations regarding our DCE Platform® and the potential advantages of our product candidates;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, particularly in our “critical accounting estimates” described in Part I, Item 2 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates” and in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on November 7, 2019 which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement, that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the

 

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forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments that we may make.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 of this prospectus supplement and in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of our quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 7, 2019, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision.

Corporate Overview

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company applying our extensive knowledge of deuterium chemistry to discover and develop novel small molecule drugs. Selective incorporation of deuterium into known molecules has the potential, on a case-by-case basis, to provide better pharmacokinetic or metabolic properties, thereby enhancing their clinical safety, tolerability or efficacy. Our approach typically starts with previously studied compounds, including approved drugs, which we believe may be improved with deuterium substitution. Our technology provides the opportunity to develop products that may compete with the non-deuterated drug in existing markets or to leverage its known activity to expand into new indications and may enable compounds not otherwise well-suited for human drug development to be clinically developed. We believe our deuterated chemical entity platform, or DCE Platform®, has broad potential across numerous therapeutic areas. We have a pipeline that includes multiple clinical-stage candidates and a number of preclinical compounds that we are currently assessing.

 

 

LOGO

Recent Developments

Notice of Allowance Related to CTP-543 for Alopecia Areata

In January 2020, we announced that we received a Notice of Allowance from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or PTO, for Patent Application No. 16/098,338 related to CTP-543. CTP-543 is being developed for the treatment of moderate-to-severe alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks hair follicles, resulting in patchy or complete hair loss. The patent, if issued, is expected to expire in 2037 and will cover pharmaceutical compositions of CTP-543 and methods of treating alopecia areata with



 

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CTP-543, including the clinical doses of CTP-543 that produced the statistically significant results observed in our Phase 2 dose-ranging clinical trial. We intend to conduct an end of Phase 2 meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and advance CTP-543 into Phase 3 evaluation in 2020.

Grant of Motion to Vacate and Remand PTAB Decision Involving CTP-543

In January 2020, we announced that the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or CAFC, granted our motion to vacate and remand the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, or PTAB, final written decision to invalidate U.S. Patent No. 9,249,149 related to CTP-543. Our motion was made in light of the recent CAFC ruling on the Constitution’s Appointments Clause (Arthrex, Inc. v. Smith & Nephew, Inc., No. 18-2140). As a result, the inter partes review, or IPR, will now be remanded for reconsideration by a new panel of PTAB judges. The CAFC’s grant of our motion will take effect on March 16, 2020 unless Incyte, which filed the petition for the IPR, or the PTO Director, who intervened in the case, seeks rehearing of the CAFC’s decision. If a request for rehearing was denied, the CAFC’s decision would ordinarily take effect seven days after the denial. The patent remains valid and enforceable while the IPR is being reconsidered by the PTAB and until any future appeals by us have been exhausted in the event that the PTAB reaches a similar decision to invalidate the patent.

Completion of Open Label Clinical Trial of CTP-543 in Alopecia Areata

In December 2019, we announced that we completed our open label clinical trial evaluating 8 mg twice-daily compared to 16 mg once-daily dosing of CTP-543 in 57 patients with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata. Results in the 8 mg twice-daily arm were consistent with the previously-reported 8 mg twice-daily results from our Phase 2 dose-ranging clinical trial of CTP-543. The trial measured the relative change in Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score between baseline and Week 24. Treatment was generally well tolerated in both arms of the trial. All but one of the patients who completed this trial have elected to continue in an open label, long term extension trial. We expect to report findings from the trial at a future medical meeting.

Initiation of CTP-692 Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Schizophrenia

In December 2019, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CTP-692 as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. Approximately 300 adult patients who are stable on an antipsychotic medication will be randomized to receive 1, 2 or 4 grams of CTP-692 or placebo once-daily. The primary outcome measure is the change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at 12 weeks compared to baseline. We expect to report topline data from the trial by year end 2020.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on April 12, 2006 as Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 65 Hayden Avenue, Suite 3000N, Lexington, Massachusetts 02421, and our telephone number is (781) 860-0045. Our Internet website is https://www.concertpharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference. Concert®, the Concert logo and DCE Platform® are our registered trademarks. The other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners.

Implications of Being a Smaller Reporting Company

We qualify as a smaller reporting company as defined in the Exchange Act. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these scaled disclosures for so long as our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock offered by us

                 shares.

 

Option to purchase additional shares of common stock

The underwriters have an option to purchase up to an additional                  shares of our common stock from us. The underwriters can exercise this option at any time within 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

Pre-funded warrants offered by us

Pre-funded warrants to purchase up to                  shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant will equal the price per share that shares of common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant will be $0.001 per share. Pre-funded warrants are being offered to a certain existing investor, in lieu of the shares of our common stock. This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of these pre-funded warrants.

 

Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering

                 shares (or                  shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares), in each case excluding any shares issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants.

 

Use of Proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately                 , or approximately             if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares from us in full. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to advance our clinical program for CTP-543 into Phase 3 development for alopecia areata, fund the clinical development of CTP-692 through Phase 2 for schizophrenia and support our pipeline development, working capital needs and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk Factors

You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement beginning on page S-5 and in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of our quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 7, 2019, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Market symbol

CNCE.

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on the 23,841,155 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019 and excludes the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants being offered by us in this offering, as well as:

 

   

61,273 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $12.24 per share;



 

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412,220 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units as of September 30, 2019;

 

   

4,202,674 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $14.96 per share; and

 

   

1,192,083 shares of common stock available for future issuance under our equity compensation plans as of September 30, 2019.

Except as otherwise noted, the information in this prospectus supplement:

 

   

assumes no exercise of outstanding stock options or warrants described above and no exercise of the pre-funded warrants we are offering to a certain existing investor; and

 

   

assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase                  additional shares of common stock from us.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of our quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 7, 2019, together with all other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected, which, in turn, could have a negative impact on the price of our common stock. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Additional Risks Related to Our Common Stock and This Offering

If you purchase our securities in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.

Investors purchasing shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants in this offering will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds the as adjusted book value per share of our tangible assets as of September 30, 2019. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 was approximately $119.3 million, or $5.00 per share of our common stock, based upon 23,841,155 shares of common stock outstanding on September 30, 2019. After giving effect to the sale of our common stock and pre-funded warrants at an offering price of $         per share of common stock and $         per pre-funded warrant (which equals the public offering price of the common stock less the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant) (and excluding shares of common stock issued and any proceeds received upon exercise of the warrants or any resulting accounting associated with the warrants), after deducting estimated offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 would have been approximately $         million, or $         per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the as adjusted net tangible book value of $         per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate and substantial dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of $         per share to new investors who purchase our common stock or pre-funded warrants in the offering.

This dilution is due to the substantially lower price paid by some of our investors who purchased shares prior to this offering as compared to the price offered to the public in this offering and the exercise of stock options granted to our employees, directors and consultants. In addition, we have a significant number of stock options and warrants outstanding. The exercise of any of these outstanding options and warrants would result in additional dilution. As a result of the dilution to investors purchasing shares or pre-funded warrants in this offering, investors may receive significantly less than the purchase price paid in this offering, if anything, in the event of our liquidation. Further, because we expect we will need to raise additional capital to fund our future activities, we may in the future sell substantial amounts of common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may use them in ways that you and other stockholders may not approve.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for clinical development of our wholly owned programs and to support our pipeline development, working capital needs and other general corporate purposes. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value. See “Use of Proceeds.”

There is no public market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering.

There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply to list the pre-funded warrants on any securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system, including The Nasdaq Global Market. Without an active market, the liquidity of the pre-funded warrants will be limited.

 

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Holders of pre-funded warrants purchased in this offering will have no rights as common stockholders until such holders exercise their pre-funded warrants and acquire shares of our common stock.

Until holders of the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering acquire shares of our common stock upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, such holders will have no rights with respect to the shares of our common stock underlying the pre-funded warrants. Upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, the holders will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs after the exercise date.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We might not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credit carryforwards.

As of December 31, 2018, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $99.5 million and $46.7 million, respectively, and federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of $11.7 million and $4.9 million, respectively. If not utilized, the net operating loss carryforwards (other than for taxable years ending after December 31, 2017) and research and development credits will expire at various dates through 2038. These net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Federal net operating losses generated after December 31, 2017 are not subject to expiration, but the deductibility of such federal net operating losses is limited to 80% of our taxable income in any future taxable year. In addition, under Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited. We may have experienced ownership changes in the past. We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, including this offering, some of which may be outside of our control. If an ownership change occurred or occurs and our ability to use our historical net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards is materially limited, or if our research and development carryforwards are adjusted, it would harm our future operating results by effectively increasing our future tax obligations.

Additional Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent protection for our product candidates or if third parties allege that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates may be adversely affected.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary product candidates. We recently received a Notice of Allowance from the PTO for Patent Application No. 16/098,338 related to CTP-543. The patent, if issued, will cover pharmaceutical compositions of CTP-543 and methods of treating alopecia areata with CTP-543. Even if we believe that the requirements for patentability are met, we cannot be certain that third parties will not challenge that such requirements were in fact met.

The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our owned and licensed patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad, including challenges through the PTO’s post grant review proceedings. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and products.

 

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For example, in April 2019, the PTAB issued a final written decision in connection with the IPR that held that the claims of our U.S. Patent No. 9,249,149 related to CTP-543 were invalid. In January 2020, the CAFC granted our motion to vacate and remand the PTAB’s decision in light of the recent CAFC ruling on the Constitution’s Appointments Clause (Arthrex, Inc. v. Smith & Nephew, Inc., No. 18-2140). As a result, the IPR will now be remanded for reconsideration by a new panel of PTAB judges. The CAFC’s grant of our motion will take effect on March 16, 2020 unless Incyte or the PTO Director seeks rehearing of the CAFC’s decision. If a request for rehearing was denied, the CAFC’s decision would ordinarily take effect seven days after the denial. The patent remains valid and enforceable while the IPR is being reconsidered by the PTAB and until any future appeals by us have been exhausted in the event that the PTAB reaches a similar decision to invalidate the patent. Adverse determinations in any submission, proceeding or litigation such as this could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or product candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights.

In addition, the validity of our patent derived from Patent Application No. 16/098,338, if issued, covering pharmaceutical compositions of CTP-543 and methods of treating alopecia areata with CTP-543 could be challenged by third parties, and there can be no assurance that we would be successful in such challenge, which would have a negative impact on our business and shorten the timeframe during which we could prevent generic versions of CTP-543 from entering the market.

Further, CTP-543 is a deuterium-modified version of ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib is marketed in the United States by Incyte under the name Jakafi®. Incyte has patents covering ruxolitinib that may be unexpired if and when we seek marketing approval for CTP-543. Incyte also owns a U.S. patent that broadly claims deuterated analogs of ruxolitinib. We previously challenged the validity of Incyte’s patent in a post grant review proceeding, which was denied.

Even if we are successful in obtaining valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives. Additionally, if we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing or commercializing the infringing product candidate or product and could be required to pay potentially significant damages. Alternatively, we may be required to obtain a license from such third party in order to use the infringing technology and continue developing, manufacturing or marketing the infringing product candidate. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.

Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds we will receive from this offering will be approximately $        million, or approximately $        million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, in each case after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

We expect to use the net proceeds from the offering, together with our current cash and cash equivalents, to:

 

   

advance our clinical program for CTP-543 into Phase 3 development for alopecia areata;

 

   

fund the clinical development of CTP-692 through Phase 2 for schizophrenia; and

 

   

support our pipeline development, working capital needs and other general corporate purposes.

The expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds from this offering for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of net proceeds.

We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into                 , subject to certain assumptions, including clinical development plans. We do not expect that the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments will be sufficient to enable us to fund the completion of development of any of our product candidates.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently plan to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our business. We do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Payment of future dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in current or future financing instruments, provisions of applicable law and other factors the board deems relevant. Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock may be restricted by the terms of any of our future indebtedness.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

As of September 30, 2019, we had net tangible book value of approximately $119.3 million, or $5.00 per share of our common stock, based upon 23,841,155 shares of our common stock outstanding as of that date. Historical net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, divided by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of                  shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $         per share, and pre-funded warrants to purchase up to                  shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $         per share of our common stock and $         per pre-funded warrant (which equals the public offering price of the common stock less the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant) (and excluding shares of common stock issued and any proceeds received upon exercise of the warrants or any resulting accounting associated with the warrants) and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and excluding the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the pre-funded warrants issued pursuant to this offering, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 would have been approximately $         million, or approximately $         per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $         per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $         per share to new investors purchasing common stock and pre-funded warrants in this offering.

The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis to new investors:

 

 

 

Public offering price per share

      $                

Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019

   $ 5.00     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares and pre-funded warrants in this offering

     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

      $    
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors in this offering

      $    
     

 

 

 

 

 

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase                  additional shares of common stock at the public offering price of $         per share, the as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be $         per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of $         per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $         per share to investors in this offering at the public offering price.

Assuming the pre-funded warrants were immediately exercised in full, this would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and warrant exercise of $        , which represents a dilution per share to new investors of $         and an increase in net tangible book value per share to existing shareholders of $        .

Except for the discussion on dilution resulting upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants in the immediately preceding paragraph, the table and discussion above is based on 23,841,155 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019 and excludes the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants being offered by us in this offering, as well as:

 

   

61,273 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $12.24 per share;

 

   

412,220 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units as of September 30, 2019;

 

   

4,202,674 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $14.96 per share; and

 

   

1,192,083 shares of common stock available for future issuance under our equity compensation plans as of September 30, 2019.

 

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If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase                  additional shares in full, the as adjusted net tangible book value will increase to $        per share, representing an immediate increase to existing stockholders of $        per share and an immediate dilution of $        per share to new investors. If any shares are issued upon exercise of outstanding options or warrants at prices below the public offering price, you will experience further dilution.

To the extent that any options or warrants are exercised, including the pre-funded warrants, any restricted stock units vest and are settled, new equity awards are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we otherwise issue additional shares of common stock in the future (including shares issued in connection with strategic and other transactions), there will be further dilution to new investors.

In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PRE-FUNDED WARRANTS

The following is a brief summary of certain terms and conditions of the pre-funded warrants being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement. The following description is subject in all respects to the provisions contained in the pre-funded warrants.

Form. The pre-funded warrants will be issued as individual warrant agreements to the investors. The form of pre-funded warrant will be filed as an exhibit to our Current Report on Form 8-K that we expect to file with the SEC.

Exercisability. The pre-funded warrants are exercisable at any time after their original issuance. The pre-funded warrants will be exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice and by payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of shares of common stock purchased upon such exercise. As an alternative to payment in immediately available funds, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the pre-funded warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of shares of common stock determined according to the formula set forth in the pre-funded warrant. No fractional shares of common stock will be issued in connection with the exercise of a pre-funded warrant. In lieu of fractional shares, we will pay the holder an amount in cash equal to the fractional amount multiplied by the fair market value of any such fractional shares.

Term. The pre-funded warrants do not expire.

Exercise Limitations. Under the pre-funded warrants, neither we nor the holder may effect the exercise of any pre-funded warrant, and a holder will not be entitled to exercise any portion of any pre-funded warrant, which, upon giving effect to such exercise, would cause (i) the aggregate number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 9.99% of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, or (ii) the combined voting power of our securities beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 9.99% of the combined voting power of all of our securities then outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the pre-funded warrants. However, any holder may increase or decrease such percentage, but not in excess of 19.99%, upon at least 61 days’ prior notice from the holder to us.

Exercise Price. The exercise price per whole share of our common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the pre-funded warrants is $0.001 per share of common stock. The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock and also upon any distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our stockholders.

Transferability. Subject to applicable laws, the pre-funded warrants may be offered for sale, sold, transferred or assigned without our consent.

Exchange Listing. We do not plan on applying to list the pre-funded warrants on The Nasdaq Global Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Fundamental Transactions. In the event of a fundamental transaction, as described in the pre-funded warrants and generally including any reorganization, recapitalization or reclassification of our common stock, the sale, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of our properties or assets, our consolidation or merger with or into another person, the acquisition of more than 50% of our outstanding common stock, or any person or group becoming the beneficial owner of 50% of the voting power represented by our outstanding common stock, the holders of the pre-funded warrants will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants the kind and amount of securities, cash or other property that the holders would have received had they exercised the pre-funded warrants immediately prior to such fundamental transaction without regard to any limitations on exercise contained in the pre-funded warrants.

No Rights as a Stockholder. Except by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, the holder of a pre-funded warrant does not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until the holder exercises the pre-funded warrant.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants to non-U.S. holders, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all the potential tax considerations relating thereto. This summary is based upon the provisions of the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. These authorities may be changed or subject to differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those set forth below. We have not sought any ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the IRS) with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions.

This summary also does not address the tax considerations arising under the laws of any U.S. state or local or any non-U.S. jurisdiction, U.S. federal estate or gift tax laws, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any alternative minimum tax consequences. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to an investor’s particular circumstances or to investors that may be subject to special tax rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations;

 

   

dealers in securities or currencies;

 

   

traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings;

 

   

certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

persons who hold our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as a position in a hedging transaction, “straddle,” “conversion transaction” or other risk reduction transaction;

 

   

persons who do not hold our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, for investment purposes);

 

   

partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes (or investors in any such entities);

 

   

persons deemed to sell our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

   

pension plans;

 

   

controlled foreign corporations;

 

   

passive foreign investment companies; or

 

   

persons that acquire our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as compensation for services.

In addition, if a partnership, including any entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, holds our common stock or pre-funded warrants, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend on the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. Accordingly, partnerships that hold our common stock or pre-funded warrants, and partners in such partnerships, should consult their tax advisors.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor with respect to the application of the U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation, as well as any tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants arising under the U.S. federal estate or gift tax rules or under the laws of any U.S. state or local or any non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.

Non-U.S. Holder Defined

For purposes of this discussion, you are a non-U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of our common stock or pre-funded warrants that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes (i) a corporation or other organization classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is created or organized in or under laws other than the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia, (ii) a nonresident alien individual, (iii) an estate that is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net-income basis; or (iv) a trust that (1) is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net-income basis, (2) is not subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United

 

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States or over which no U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions and (3) has not made an election to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.

Pre-funded Warrants

Although the law in this area is not completely settled, the pre-funded warrants are generally expected to be treated as outstanding stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If you are a non-U.S. holder that is contemplating the acquisition of pre-funded warrants, you should discuss with your personal tax advisor the consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the pre-funded warrants, as well as the exercise of the pre-funded warrants into our common stock. The balance of this discussion generally assumes that the characterization described above is respected for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Distributions on our Common Stock

As discussed under “Dividend Policy,” above, we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. If we were to make distributions on our common stock, those payments will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. To the extent those distributions exceed both our current and our accumulated earnings and profits, they will constitute a return of capital and will first reduce your basis in our common stock, but not below zero, and then will be treated as gain from the sale of stock, subject to the tax treatment described in the discussion below regarding taxable dispositions of our common stock. Any such distributions would also be subject to the discussions below regarding backup withholding and FATCA.

Subject to the discussion below regarding a dividend received by you that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, a dividend paid to you generally will be subject to U.S. withholding tax either at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividend or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8BEN (generally including a U.S. taxpayer identification number), IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 (or a successor form), in each case, certifying qualification for the reduced rate.

Dividends received by you that are effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States) generally are exempt from such withholding tax. In order to obtain this exemption, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8ECI or successor form or other applicable IRS Form W-8 properly certifying such exemption. Such effectively connected dividends, although not subject to withholding tax, are taxed at the same graduated rates applicable to U.S. persons, net of certain deductions and credits, subject to an applicable income tax treaty providing otherwise. In addition, if you are a corporate non-U.S. holder, you may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty on such effectively connected dividends.

If you are eligible for a reduced rate of withholding tax pursuant to a tax treaty, you may be able to obtain a refund of any excess amounts currently withheld if you file an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.

The pre-funded warrants are not entitled to any distributions until such warrant is exercised. Upon the exercise of a pre-funded warrant, a holder shall be entitled to receive distributions declared on our common stock prior to the exercise of such pre-funded warrant. It is possible that such entitlement to distributions may cause the declaration of a distribution on our common stock to be currently taxable to holders of pre-funded warrants under the principles governing Section 305 of the Code. Each holder should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the potential taxation of distributions declared on our common stock.

Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Stock and/or Pre-Funded Warrants

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding and FATCA, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the

 

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U.S.), in which case you will be required to pay tax on the net gain derived from the sale under regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates, and for a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation, such non-U.S. holder may be subject to the branch profits tax on any earnings and profits attributable to such gains at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty;

 

   

you are an individual who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year in which the sale or disposition occurs and certain other conditions are met, in which case you will be required to pay a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the sale, which tax may be offset by U.S. source capital losses in the taxable year of disposition (even though you are not considered a resident of the United States) (subject to applicable income tax treaties); or

 

   

our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest by reason of our status as a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (a USRPHC) for U.S. federal income tax purposes at any time within the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or your holding period for our common stock. We believe that we are not currently and will not become a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our U.S. real property relative to the fair market value of our other business assets, there can be no assurance that we will not become a USRPHC in the future. Even if we become a USRPHC, however, as long as our common stock, is regularly traded on an established securities market (as determined under the Code), such common stock will be treated as U.S. real property interests only if you actually or constructively hold more than five percent of such regularly traded common stock at any time during the applicable period that is specified in the Code. Our pre-funded warrants are expected to constitute a class of stock for purposes of the rules described above. However, we do not expect our pre-funded warrants to be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of such rules.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

Generally, we must report annually to the IRS the amount of dividends paid to you, your name and address, and the amount of tax withheld, if any. A similar report will generally be sent to you. Pursuant to applicable income tax treaties or other agreements, the IRS may make these reports available to tax authorities in your country of residence.

Payments of dividends or of proceeds on the disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants made to you may be subject to additional information reporting and backup withholding at the then applicable rate unless you establish an exemption, for example by properly certifying your non-U.S. status on an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 (or a successor form). Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that you are a U.S. person.

Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants effected by you by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless you certify your status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfy certain other requirements, or otherwise establish an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax; rather, the U.S. federal income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund or credit may generally be obtained from the IRS, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS in a timely manner.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)

Provisions commonly referred to as “FATCA” may impose withholding tax on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. The legislation imposes a 30% withholding tax on

 

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dividends on our common stock paid to a foreign financial institution or to certain non-financial foreign entities, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence, reporting and withholding obligations, (ii) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner and such entity meets certain other specified requirements, or (iii) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. Such withholding may also apply to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants, although under recently proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, no withholding would apply to such gross proceeds. The preamble to the proposed regulations specifies that taxpayers (including withholding agents) are permitted to rely on the proposed regulations pending finalization. If withholding under FATCA is required on any payment related to our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants, under certain circumstances, a non-U.S. holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of this withholding tax. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this paragraph. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants and the entities through which they hold our common stock.

The preceding discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations is for information only. It is not tax advice. Each prospective investor should consult its own tax advisor regarding the particular U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants, including the consequences of any proposed change in applicable laws.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement dated on or about January     , 2020, among us and Jefferies LLC, as representative of the underwriters named below and the sole book-running manager for this offering, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the number of shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants shown opposite its name below.

 

 

 

UNDERWRITER

   NUMBER OF
SHARES
     NUMBER OF
PRE-FUNDED
WARRANTS
 

Jefferies LLC

                                                       
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by their counsel. The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters will purchase all of the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants if any of them are purchased. If an underwriter defaults on its purchase commitment, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated. We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and certain of their controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters have advised us that, following the completion of this offering, they currently intend to make a market in our common stock as permitted by applicable laws and regulations. However, the underwriters are not obligated to do so and the underwriters may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without notice in their sole discretion. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for our common stock, that you will be able to sell any of our common stock held by you at a particular time or that the prices that you receive when you sell will be favorable. There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants. The pre-funded warrants will not be listed on any national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

The underwriters are offering the shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants subject to their acceptance of the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Commissions and Expenses

The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. The underwriters may offer the shares of common stock to certain dealers, which may include the underwriters, at that price less a concession not in excess of $        per share of common stock. After the offering, the public offering price, concession and reallowance to dealers may be reduced by the representative. No such reduction will change the amount of proceeds to be received by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement.

 

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The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering. Such amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

 

 

            PER SHARE      TOTAL  
     PER PRE-
FUNDED
WARRANT
     WITHOUT
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
     WITH
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
     WITHOUT
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
     WITH
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
 

Public offering price

   $                    $                    $                    $                    $                

Underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us

   $        $        $        $        $    

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $        $        $        $        $    

 

 

We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $        .

Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “CNCE.” The pre-funded warrants will not be listed on any national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Option to Purchase Additional Shares

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to an aggregate of              additional shares of common stock at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, less underwriting discounts and commissions.

No Sales of Similar Securities

We, our executive officers and our directors have agreed, subject to specified exceptions, not to directly or indirectly:

 

   

sell, offer to sell, contract to sell or lend, pledge, hypothecate or grant any security interest in, transfer, effect any short sale or establish or increase a “put equivalent position” or liquidate or decrease “call equivalent position,” each within the meaning of Rule 16a-l(h) under the Exchange Act; or

 

   

otherwise dispose of any shares of common stock, options or warrants to acquire shares of common stock, or securities exchangeable or exercisable for or convertible into shares of common stock currently or hereafter owned either of record or beneficially; or

 

   

publicly announce an intention to do any of the foregoing for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement without the prior written consent of Jefferies LLC.

These restrictions terminate after the close of trading of the shares of our common stock on and including the 90th day after the date of this prospectus supplement.

Jefferies LLC may, in its sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the 90-day period, release all or a portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.

Stabilization

The underwriters have advised us that they, pursuant to Regulation M under the Exchange Act, and certain persons participating in the offering may engage in short sale transactions, stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions or the imposition of penalty bids in connection with this offering. These activities may have the effect of stabilizing or maintaining the market price of our common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Establishing short sales positions may involve either “covered” short sales or “naked” short sales.

 

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“Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in this offering. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock or purchasing shares of our common stock in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares.

“Naked” short sales are sales in excess of the option to purchase additional shares of our common stock. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering.

A stabilizing bid is a bid for the purchase of shares of our common stock on behalf of the underwriters for the purpose of fixing or maintaining the price of our common stock. A syndicate covering transaction is the bid for or the purchase of shares of our common stock on behalf of the underwriters to reduce a short position incurred by the underwriters in connection with the offering. Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. A penalty bid is an arrangement permitting the underwriters to reclaim the selling concession otherwise accruing to a syndicate member in connection with the offering if shares of common stock originally sold by such syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction and therefore have not been effectively placed by such syndicate member.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. The underwriters are not obligated to engage in these activities and, if commenced, any of the activities may be discontinued at any time.

The underwriters may also engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M during a period before the commencement of offers or sales of shares of our common stock in this offering and extending through the completion of distribution. A passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid of that security. However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, that bid must then be lowered when specified purchase limits are exceeded.

Electronic Distribution

A prospectus in electronic format may be made available by e-mail or on web sites or through online services maintained by the underwriters or their affiliates. In those cases, prospective investors may view offering terms online and may be allowed to place orders online. The underwriters may agree with us to allocate a specific number of shares of our common stock for sale to online brokerage account holders. Any such allocation for online distributions will be made by the underwriters on the same basis as other allocations. Other than the prospectus in electronic format, the information on the underwriters’ respective websites and any information contained in any other website maintained by any of the underwriters is not part of this prospectus supplement or accompanying base prospectus, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters and should not be relied upon by investors.

Other Activities and Relationships

The underwriters and certain of their affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriters and certain of their affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory and commercial and investment banking services for us and our affiliates, for which they will receive customary fees and expenses.

 

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In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and certain of their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments issued by us and our affiliates. The underwriters and certain of their respective affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Disclaimers about Non-U.S. Jurisdictions

Australia

This prospectus is not a disclosure document for the purposes of Australia’s Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) of Australia, or Corporations Act, has not been lodged with the Australian Securities & Investments Commission and is only directed to the categories of exempt persons set out below. Accordingly, if you receive this prospectus in Australia:

You confirm and warrant that you are either:

 

   

a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act;

 

   

a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(c) or (d) of the Corporations Act and that you have provided an accountant’s certificate to the Company which complies with the requirements of section 708(8)(c)(i) or (ii) of the Corporations Act and related regulations before the offer has been made;

 

   

a person associated with the Company under Section 708(12) of the Corporations Act; or

 

   

a “professional investor” within the meaning of section 708(11)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act.

To the extent that you are unable to confirm or warrant that you are an exempt sophisticated investor, associated person or professional investor under the Corporations Act any offer made to you under this prospectus is void and incapable of acceptance.

You warrant and agree that you will not offer any of the securities issued to you pursuant to this prospectus for resale in Australia within 12 months of those securities being issued unless any such resale offer is exempt from the requirement to issue a disclosure document under section 708 of the Corporations Act.

Canada

Resale Restrictions

The distribution of our shares of common stock in Canada is being made only in the provinces of Ontario, Québec, Alberta and British Columbia on a private placement basis exempt from the requirement that we prepare and file a prospectus with the securities regulatory authorities in each province where trades of these securities are made. Any resale of the shares of common stock in Canada must be made under applicable securities laws which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made under available statutory exemptions or under a discretionary exemption granted by the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authority. Purchasers are advised to seek legal advice prior to any resale of the securities.

Representations of Canadian Purchasers

By purchasing our shares of common stock in Canada and accepting delivery of a purchase confirmation, a purchaser is representing to us and the dealer from whom the purchase confirmation is received that:

 

   

the purchaser is entitled under applicable provincial securities laws to purchase the shares without the benefit of a prospectus qualified under those securities laws as it is an “accredited investor” as defined under National Instrument 45-106—Prospectus Exemptions;

 

   

the purchaser is a “permitted client” as defined in National Instrument 31-103—Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations;

 

   

where required by law, the purchaser is purchasing as principal and not as agent; and

 

   

the purchaser has reviewed the text above under Resale Restrictions.

 

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Conflicts of Interest

Canadian purchasers are hereby notified that the underwriters are relying on the exemption set out in section 3A.3 or 3A.4, if applicable, of National Instrument 33-105—Underwriting Conflicts from having to provide certain conflict of interest disclosure in this document.

Statutory Rights of Action

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if the prospectus (including any amendment thereto) such as this document contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser of these securities in Canada should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Enforcement of Legal Rights

All of our directors and officers as well as the experts named herein may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible for Canadian purchasers to effect service of process within Canada upon us or those persons. All or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of those persons may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible to satisfy a judgment against us or those persons in Canada or to enforce a judgment obtained in Canadian courts against us or those persons outside of Canada.

Taxation and Eligibility for Investment

Canadian purchasers of our shares of common stock should consult their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences of an investment in the shares in their particular circumstances and about the eligibility of the shares for investment by the purchaser under relevant Canadian legislation.

European Economic Area

Any distributor subject to MiFID II that is offering, selling or recommending the shares of common stock is responsible for undertaking its own target market assessment in respect of the shares of common stock and determining its own distribution channels for the purposes of the MiFID product governance rules under Commission Delegated Directive (EU) 2017/593 (the Delegated Directive). Neither we nor the underwriters make any representations or warranties as to a distributor’s compliance with the Delegated Directive.

In relation to each member state of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a Relevant Member State), an offer to the public of any shares of common stock which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may not be made in that Relevant Member State except that an offer to the public in that Relevant Member State of any shares of our common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive, if they have been implemented in that Relevant Member State:

 

   

to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

   

to fewer than 100 or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provisions the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriter or the underwriters nominated by us for any such offer; or

 

   

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of shares of our common stock shall require us or the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 16 of the Prospectus Directive.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer of shares of common stock to the public” in relation to the shares of our common stock in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the shares of our common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe to the shares of our common stock, as the same may be varied in that Relevant Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Relevant Member State and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including

 

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the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member State), and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU.

Hong Kong

No securities have been offered or sold, and no securities may be offered or sold, in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than to persons whose ordinary business is to buy or sell shares or debentures, whether as principal or agent; or to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong, or SFO, and any rules made under that Ordinance; or in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong, or CO, or which do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public for the purpose of the CO or the SFO. No document, invitation or advertisement relating to the securities has been issued or may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under that Ordinance.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus have not been registered with the Registrar of Companies in Hong Kong. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus may not be issued, circulated or distributed in Hong Kong, and the securities may not be offered for subscription to members of the public in Hong Kong. Each person acquiring the securities will be required, and is deemed by the acquisition of the securities, to confirm that he is aware of the restriction on offers of the securities described in this prospectus and the relevant offering documents and that he is not acquiring, and has not been offered any securities in circumstances that contravene any such restrictions.

Israel

This document does not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, and has not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In Israel, this prospectus is being distributed only to, and any offer of the shares of our common stock is directed only at, (i) a limited number of persons in accordance with Israeli Securities Law and (ii) investors listed in the first addendum, or the Addendum, to the Israeli Securities Law, consisting primarily of joint investment in trust funds, provident funds, insurance companies, banks, portfolio managers, investment advisors, members of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, underwriters, venture capital funds, entities with equity in excess of NIS 50 million and “qualified individuals,” each as defined in the Addendum (as it may be amended from time to time), collectively referred to as qualified investors (in each case, purchasing for their own account or, where permitted under the Addendum, for the accounts of their clients who are investors listed in the Addendum). Qualified investors are required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum, are aware of the meaning of the same and agree to it.

Japan

The offering has not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan (Law No. 25 of 1948 of Japan, as amended), or FIEL, and the initial purchaser will not offer or sell any securities, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEL and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan.

Singapore

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus have not been and will not be lodged or registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or SFA, (ii) to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275, of the SFA, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

 

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Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

   

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

   

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the securities pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

   

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

 

   

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law;

 

   

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

 

   

as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore.

Switzerland

The securities may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange, or SIX, or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This prospectus has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, our company or the securities have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this prospectus will not be filed with, and the offer of securities will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, and the offer of securities has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes, or CISA. The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of securities.

United Kingdom

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is only being distributed to, and is only directed at, persons in the United Kingdom that are qualified investors within the meaning of Article 2(1)(e) of the Prospectus Directive that are also (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (Order) and/or (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated (each such person being referred to as a “relevant person”).

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. The underwriters are being represented in connection with this offering by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, New York, New York.

 

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EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at https://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at https://www.concertpharma.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. The registration statement contains more information than this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus regarding us and the securities, including certain exhibits and schedules. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s internet site.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-36310) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on February 28, 2019;

 

   

Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019, June 30, 2019 and September 30, 2019 filed with the SEC on May  2, 2019, August 1, 2019 and November 7, 2019, respectively;

 

   

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 29, 2019, with respect to those portions that are incorporated by reference in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019, May 2, 2019, June  17, 2019, September  5, 2019, October  29, 2019 and January 22, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on February 10, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number:

65 Hayden Avenue, Suite 3000N

Lexington, Massachusetts 02421

Attn: Investor Relations

(781) 860-0045

ir@concertpharma.com

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

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PROSPECTUS

$250,000,000

CONCERT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $250,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol CNCE.

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is March 1, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

CONCERT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     6  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

SECURITIES THAT MAY BE OFFERED

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     32  

 

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $250,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiary

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.concertpharma.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-36310) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017; and

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on February 10, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

99 Hayden Avenue, Suite 500

Lexington, MA 02421

Attn: Investor Relations

(781) 860-0045

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Please see the risk factors under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K on file with the SEC, as revised or supplemented by Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q subsequently filed with the SEC, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, along with any risk factors identified in a prospectus supplement. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider these risks as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. The discussion of risks includes or refers to forward-looking statements. You should read the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on such forward-looking statements discussed elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. You also can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. There are a number of important risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those inherent in pharmaceutical research and development, such as adverse results in our drug discovery and clinical development activities, decisions made by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities with respect to the development and commercialization of our drug candidates, our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights for our drug candidates, our ability to obtain any necessary financing to conduct our planned activities and other risk factors. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments that we may make. Unless required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements.

 

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CONCERT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company applying our extensive knowledge of deuterium chemistry to discover and develop novel small molecule drugs. Selective incorporation of deuterium into known molecules has the potential, on a case-by-case basis, to provide better pharmacokinetic or metabolic properties, thereby enhancing their clinical safety, tolerability or efficacy. Our approach typically starts with previously studied compounds, including approved drugs, which we believe may be improved with deuterium substitution. Our technology provides the opportunity to develop products that may compete with the non-deuterated drug in existing markets or to leverage its known activity to expand into new indications. Our deuterated chemical entity platform, or DCE Platform®, has broad potential across numerous therapeutic areas. We have a pipeline of clinical candidates as well as research efforts to identify new product candidates.

Our strategy is to apply our deuterium technology to previously studied molecules, including approved drugs, in which deuterium substitution has the potential to enhance clinical safety, tolerability, or efficacy. We select pipeline candidates based on the medical needs of patients, commercial opportunity, regulatory considerations, and competitive landscape. In many instances, Phase 1 clinical evaluation has the potential to demonstrate whether there will be product differentiation.

We believe that our application of deuterium chemistry to substitute deuterium for hydrogen, which we refer to as deuteration, is an efficient way to build on existing knowledge to create important new medicines. Deuterium is similar to hydrogen in size and shape. However, deuterium differs from hydrogen in one pharmaceutically important respect-deuterium forms a more stable chemical bond with carbon. This increased stability has the potential, through the selective substitution of deuterium for hydrogen, to improve pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties without changing a compound’s intrinsic biological activity.

In our drug discovery and development processes, we build on previously studied molecules, including approved drugs. This allows us to efficiently identify lead compounds and, in some cases, shorten the amount of time necessary to initiate clinical trials as compared to conventional small molecule drug research and development.

Our principal executive offices are located at 99 Hayden Avenue, Suite 500, Lexington, Massachusetts 02421 and our telephone number is (781) 860-0045.

 

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CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth, for each of the periods presented, our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and our coverage deficiency. You should read this table in conjunction with the financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

 

     YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31,  
     2017      2016     2015      2014     2013  

Net income (loss)

   $ 95,639      $ (50,720   $ 24,174      $ (31,699   $ (6,056

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (1)

     99.9        N/A       54.5        N/A       N/A  

Coverage deficiency

     N/A        (50,720     N/A        (31,699     (6,056

 

 

(1)    We did not record earnings for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2014 and 2013. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include the acquisition of companies or businesses, repayment and refinancing of debt, working capital, research and development expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, commercial expenditures and capital expenditures. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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SECURITIES THAT MAY BE OFFERED

We may offer under this prospectus shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities, warrants to purchase any of such securities and units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, either individually or in combination with other securities, with a total value of up to $250,000,000 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity;

 

   

original issue discount;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms;

 

   

ranking;

 

   

restrictive covenants;

 

   

voting or other rights;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

 

   

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations, if any.

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc. excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiary.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities-Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiary unless such subsidiary expressly guarantees such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

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the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

   

any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

any special tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or our subsidiary from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or our subsidiary from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

certain other conditions are met.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series

 

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affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize a gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

 

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Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

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to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

 

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Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or our subsidiary, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or

 

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guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which preferred stock is undesignated. The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. Copies of these documents are filed with the SEC as exhibits to our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2014 and March 6, 2017.

Common Stock

As of February 26, 2018, we had outstanding 23,233,275 shares of common stock, held of record by 17 stockholders. We believe that the number of beneficial owners of our common stock at that date was substantially greater.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter, except as otherwise disclosed below. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Listing on The NASDAQ Global Market

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “CNCE.”

Authorized but Unissued Shares

The authorized but unissued shares of common stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the NASDAQ Listing Rules. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Preferred Stock

As of February 26, 2018, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock. The terms of any series of preferred stock may differ from the terms described below. Certain provisions of the preferred stock described below and in any applicable prospectus supplement are not complete.

 

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We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designation of the series, the number of authorized shares of the series, dividend rights and terms, conversion rights, voting rights, redemption rights and terms, liquidation preferences and any other rights, powers, preferences and limitations applicable to each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue such shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions;

 

   

any special tax implications of the preferred stock; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

   

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of

 

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calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate

 

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redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

 

   

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

 

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Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Registration Rights

We have entered into a Third Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of June 1, 2009, as amended on December 22, 2011, which we refer to as the Registration Rights Agreement, with certain of our stockholders and warrantholders. These holders have the right to require us to register under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, certain shares they acquired in private placements prior to our initial public offering, under specified circumstances as described below. After registration pursuant to these rights, these shares will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand registration rights. Subject to specified limitations set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement, at any time the holders of at least one-third of the then outstanding registrable shares, as defined in the Registration Rights Agreement, excluding certain shares issuable upon exercise of an outstanding warrant to purchase common stock, which we refer to as the warrant shares, acting together, may demand in writing that we register their registrable securities under the Securities Act so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered represents at least one-third of the then-outstanding registrable shares other than the warrant shares or has an aggregate expected price to the public of at least $5.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this demand provision on more than two occasions, subject to specified exceptions.

In addition, subject to specified limitations, the holders of registrable shares may demand in writing that we register on a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act registrable shares held by them so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an aggregate expected price to the public of at least $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this demand provision on more than four occasions, subject to specified exceptions.

Incidental registration rights. If we propose to file a registration statement to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of any of our stockholders that are not holders or registrable shares, solely for cash and on a form that would also permit the registration of registrable shares, the holders of our registrable shares are entitled to notice of registration and, subject to specified exceptions, we will be required to register the registrable shares then held by them that they request that we register.

Expenses. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including registration fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel and accountants and reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel representing the selling stockholders, other than any underwriting discounts and commissions, related to any demand or incidental registration. The Registration Rights Agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

 

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Staggered board; removal of directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director is only be able to be removed for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, is only be able to be filled by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

Stockholder action by written consent; special meetings. Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals. Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting are only able to consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

Delaware business combination statute. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Choice of forum. Our by-laws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our by-laws contain the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

Amendment of certificate of incorporation and bylaws. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered board; removal of directors” and “—Stockholder action by written consent; special meetings.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units;

 

   

any special tax implications of the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock, or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock, preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

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Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

   

on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Global Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

   

to or through a market maker other than on the Nasdaq Global Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

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If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

 

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The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Goodwin Procter LLP.

 

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EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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            Shares

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase              Shares of Common Stock

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Sole Book-Running Manager

Jefferies

                    , 2020